Given that I’ve pulled together a reading list of mostly popular and classic books, I’ve stumbled across a bunch that have been made into movies. I only mention that here because this is one of the very few times I’ve actually seen the film adaptation prior to reading the book, so I had some idea of what was up with A Clockwork Orange before I read it.
A Clockwork Orange, the novella, was published in 1962, but reached peak saturation after the Kubrick film adaptation was released in 1971. I saw the movie sometime in my mid-teens, fancying myself a bit disaffected and angsty, but hadn’t read the book until now.
In terms of genre, it’s a hard one to pin down. I’ve seen it referred to as science fiction, which almost fits, but I would describe it as truly dystopian (as opposed to the cutesy Young Adult type of dystopian to which we’ve all become accustomed). Burgess wrote the whole thing in three weeks, and by all accounts he thought it kind of sucked, and yet it remains the work for which he is best known.
Shit gets very real, right from the outset. The narrator is Alex, a hardened juvenile delinquent with a passion for classical music. He spends a night with his friends, stealing cars and beating the living daylights out of unsuspecting civilians. The next day, he lures two very young girls home from the record store, and brutally rapes them in his bedroom.
At this point, we’re only forty pages in. I mean, I’d heard that the book depicted a “subculture of youth violence”, but when this is the starting point… well, that description doesn’t seem to cut it, does it?
For some reason reading about the violence is a lot more confronting than seeing it on the screen. All of the nonsense language (more on that in a second) doesn’t cloak or soften it at all. Perhaps I’m desensitised to violence in film and television (aren’t we all?), but not so much with books. In fact, I don’t think I had ever read a truly violent book… until now.
I like to think I’ve got a fairly strong stomach for this kind of stuff, but Burgess really put it to the test. “Anti-hero” doesn’t quite suffice in describing Alex – he is unsympathetic in the extreme. I didn’t think I could dislike a narrator more than I disliked Nabakov’s Humbert Humbert (from Lolita), but here we are.
Anyway, Alex gets caught by the authorities about a third of the way into the book, which is the first indication that something’s a bit hinky. In a traditional goodies-catch-the-baddie story, you’d expect him to get caught at the very end, after a bitching chase scene or something. In A Clockwork Orange, the actual story isn’t Alex’s crime(s), it’s his punishment.
Oh, and you should know that as A Clockwork Orange unfolds, Burgess just flat out makes up his own words. He called it “Nasdat”, a kind of Anglo-Russian slang. I’d imagine it’s a lot like reading a book written in a language in which you’re almost fluent – it gets easier and easier, but you still find yourself stumbling on a word now and then. It’s less like reading and more like a jigsaw puzzle, piecing together the context clues to work out what the hell is going on.
The only bit of Burgess’ story that I didn’t quite buy was the politics of Alex and his “droogs” (translates roughly to “homies”). Alex only gets caught because one of his droogs beats him with a bike chain and leaves him unable to escape from the cops, after an earlier leadership squabble. The cops don’t believe Alex’s bullshit story (about being led astray and lured into crime by a group of violent thugs), so he goes to prison. He gets by inside by cozying up to the prison chaplain and snitching (sometimes honestly, sometimes not) on his fellow inmates. His droogs inside end up dogging him too, blaming him for the death of a cellmate (when really they all got a few kicks in). He bitches about their hypocrisy and wails about their violent perversions, but doesn’t count himself among them.
None of this seems like it would hold up in the real world of gangland violence. Snitches get stitches, after all, and a little bitch like Alex would be wearing concrete boots before long. It felt like maybe the only mechanism that Burgess had to drive Alex first into prison, and then into an experimental punishment/”cure”.
“In a sense, choosing to be deprived of the ability to make an ethical choice, you have in a sense really chosen the good.”A Clockwork Orange
Ah, yes, the punishment. As a psychology graduate (yes, I studied psych in a former life), it was both fascinating and (frankly) offensive to see old, basic concepts of behaviourism bastardised by a desperate government. Burgess called it the Ludovico technique – a form of aversion therapy, where the authorities injected Alex with nausea-inducing drugs while forcing him to watch violent films (the logical conclusion being that he becomes physically sickened at the thought of violence).
In that sense, the book really takes aim behavioural psychology, but that’s just one thread of the ugly sweater vest. Is goodness still “good” if it’s not a choice? Given that we’re all exposed to persuasive powers on a daily basis, do any of us really still have “choices”? Is violence still violence when it is perpetrated by the State? Unraveling the philosophical questions raised by A Clockwork Orange would take a decade. For now, I’ll just get on with it, because thinking about all of this for too long really bums my flow.
Alex gets out, apparently “cured”, but finds himself homeless, rejected by his parents and looking for a way to end it all. He is attacked by a former victim, the police who rescue him turn out to be former droogs who just beat him further, and when he stops at a house to ask for help – guess what – the resident is the husband of a former victim, too. Alex is really shit out of luck. It’s all very convenient, but at least the story moves quickly and there’s no bones about what Burgess is doing.
Alex ends up in the hands of a political group who are highly critical of the current government, and want to turn Alex into a symbol of police brutality. Facing a life as a cautionary-tale puppet, and realising that his “cure” has also made listening to his beloved Beethoven unbearable, he figures now is as good a time as any to execute his suicide plan. He cocks it up, winding up in hospital only to find that he seems to have been “cured of the cure” in recovery. He can go back to a life of violence and orchestral music without enforced illness and revulsion. Lovely!
In the original American publication, the story ended here, but there’s actually a 21st chapter, which was included in my edition. I guess this true ending is “happy” in a sense – Alex decides to give up his life of violent crime to seek a wife and have a child. Only, he acknowledges that, try as he might to renounce his life of crime, he won’t be able to exert any control over his hypothetical son who will go on to fuck everything up the way that he did, and have a son who goes on to do the same. So everything’s fucked, and none of it will get any better, even if Alex redeems himself in a life of domesticity (so maybe not that “happy” an ending after all). The book is arguably more realistic without this closing passage, and Kubrick famously refused to include it in his film adaptation.
A thought that struck me in the final chapters: is this what The Catcher In The Rye could have been, or tried to be? Funnily enough, A Clockwork Orange – undoubtedly more violent and confronting in basically every respect – didn’t face anywhere near the same level of censorship. Removal of the book from a handful of schools and libraries in the U.S. only happened after the release of the film, which was substantially more controversial. Really, it’s the ultimate case of literary one-upmanship; Burgess took the disaffected youth trope to its logical extreme, and forcefully confronted his readership in places that Salinger only gently poked.
I couldn’t possibly say that A Clockwork Orange is an enjoyable read. I don’t think that I could bring myself to recommend that somebody read it, but simultaneously I wouldn’t discourage anyone from reading it either. My tl;dr summary would be that everyone is evil, there are no good guys, and everything sucks. If you can accept that reality with a heaping serve of extreme violence, then this might be the book for you.
My favourite Amazon reviews of A Clockwork Orange:
- “…. If the book had been written using the King ‘s English, it certainly would not have been a candidate for the Book of the Month Club. However, as I read the last page, I felt as if I had stopped to eat at an ethnic restaurant in this ethnic neighborhood where I ordered my meal from a menu written completely in this bizarre language, but I knew precisely what I wanted to eat.” – Barbara Moore
- “I cannot like this book. How did this become a classic? The gibberish throughout hurts me. I feel dumber just attempting to read this ‘book’. My feelings are the characters are stupid. They beat people up, smoke, and cause trouble all in a language that is not English. Not fun to read. Not engaging. Not anything worth recommending. If I wanted to read nonsense I would find Dr Seuss books, at least those make sense.” – Amazon Customer
- “the negative actions depicted in this book are not a good thing… duh. that was tony’s point! ‘no good, no bad’ idiocy makes tony barf his other lung. take responsibility for yourselves!!! (read that again!) try shock therapy if you’re still watching sports on TV. help someone today!” – A customer
May 23, 2018 at 1:52 AM
Here I am again.
Yes, I loved A Clockwork Orange.
Fastpaced, brillant language, amusing (I think that I remember truly laughing aloud).
AND, it makes you think and you find yourself ponder big questions for a while: legitimization of government violence, conditioning, free will, extent of individual freedom, etc.
So, it’s a pleasent reading and makes you think a bit “further”. What more can you ask from a book?
Ok, ok! It might not be a masterpiece of literature, it might not move your guts (is that english?) in startling identification with the character. But again, you cannot expect that from every book, right?
May 23, 2018 at 3:01 PM
Oooooh, yeah! I found myself thinking a lot about how we define violence, and why we hold violence perpetrated by the state to be different, somehow. I think, like 1984, this will be one I read a few times over, at different periods in my life, to push myself to think more about my own personal philosophies. So great to hear more from you Marina, I’m really glad you’re following along with this project 😀
May 23, 2018 at 7:59 PM
Glad that my comments are welcomed and I am not (yet) perceived as the ever-present pestering I-know-everything oldish lady [that I am].
I did actually read few more of your reviewed books as today (Moby, Lady C., David, Vanity, Scarlet). I am afraid, though, that my memories are such that my two penny worth put into a comment would in fact be worth one penny, if any.
But I am back here because I would like to make a clarification concerning the language in A clockwork Orange. I did read it in the Italian translation (“Arancia meccanica”). I am convinced it was a bloody good one and I truly loved the language. But, finally, what do I know about how it really was in the original, the understanding, the evocative power of the words, the fling, the sound, ….
It might even possible that the translation is more enjoyable than the original.
May 24, 2018 at 3:28 PM
That’s a true credit to the translator, eh? I’d imagine they don’t hear that every day!
May 23, 2018 at 7:20 PM
“everyone is evil, there are no good guys, and everything sucks”
yes I can live with that, didn’t stop me loathing the film though, and doubt I could bring myself to read the book
May 24, 2018 at 3:27 PM
Hahahaha then just take the philosophy and do with it what you will 😉 cheers, Phil!
May 24, 2018 at 6:04 AM
This is such a good book. As you mention, there is so much that one could talk about regarding it.
I think that what was done with the original American version was lousy. It was the author’s original ending. It was also a very humanistic ending. Changing it was not the tving to do.
May 24, 2018 at 3:28 PM
It’s amazing what a difference that conclusion makes, it basically turns it into a completely different story, eh? Thanks, Brian! 🙂
June 7, 2018 at 9:31 PM
I took A Clockwork Orange to read on holiday. While I like this book, it’s a grim read and the next book I chose was much lighter.
Alex just doesn’t seem to have any important choices; while he has independence of action day to day, he is locked into a life he ultimately has no power over. It’s never going to end well for him, it’s just how he gets there. I suppose the 21st chapter, which isn’t in my copy, underlines this point.
June 8, 2018 at 1:23 PM
Ahahaha A Clockwork Orange is definitely an interesting choice for a holiday read!! 😉 I don’t blame you for switching to something lighter straight after, you’d certainly need it!!
You make a really interesting point about Alex’s opportunities to make choices (or lack thereof) – reminds me of the drug addiction experiments run on rats a while back. Rats that were kept in stimulating environments, with entertainment and exercise and socialisation, weren’t interested in cocaine or other drugs in the slightest. Rats that were kept in bare cages, however, with little to stimulate their minds or bodies, found themselves addicted very quickly. Alex definitely bears a lot of resemblance to the latter rats, even before he was imprisoned. Thanks for stopping by, Roger, lots of food for thought! 🙂